TRI HITA KARANA: LOCAL WISDOM AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT1 Gede Sedana2 Dwijendra University, Indonesia Email: email@example.com Abstract Rice farming has still very important to develop due to the high growth of population. Increasing productivity is the strategic policy to respond the higher demand of food (rice). One of the government policies is green revolution application. In the short term, green revolution had been brought about the good impact for the productivity of rice. However, the negative impacts are also happened due to the high uses of agricultural inputs as a recommendation from the government. In Bali, subak as local wisdom has a philosophy called tri hita karana which could be guidance for the farmers to have wise cultivation of rice farming. This emphasizes harmony concept in the social interaction among the members of subak and sustain harmonious relationship with the God and environment. Having the bad impacts to the environment, government and other stakeholders have become aware of the development sustainability, wherein the paradigm of agricultural development has been changed to be sustainable agricultural development. Subak has returned to the tri hita karana as a basis for the rice farming. Subak should be strengthened and adjusted to the new technology in order to achieve the goals of sustainable agricultural development.
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRADITIONAL IRRIGATION SYSTEM TOWARD THE CLIMATE CHANGE: Case of Rice farming development in Bali Province-Indonesia Dr. Gede Sedana, M.Sc. Dwijendra University, Bali-Indonesia Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Indonesia is one of the vulnerable countries to climate change in the relation to rice farming. This might influence to rice production and food security in the country. The availability of irrigation water is significantly very important for rice productivity as a main staple food for the people in Asia. Irrigation management should be technically and socially needed to control rice field cultivation along the year. In case of Bali province in Indonesia, the irrigation management along the river and at the farming level is run by government and local farmers groups called subak as a traditional irrigation system. The objectives of this study are to describe traditional irrigation system in the irrigation and rice farming development, and to explain the mitigation efforts conducted by subak to solve the irrigation water problem. The study pointed out that subak manages irrigation under the local wisdom called tri hita karana (three harmonious relationships among the farmers with the God, with the environment, and with the other farmers and outsider persons). It has internal rules to manage the water distribution and allocation, operation and maintenance of irrigation facilities, fund raising and ritual activities. Mitigation efforts done by subaks are changing of planting schedule, rotation of cropping pattern, selecting of crops, improving of agricultural technologies, and performing of ritual activities. These were conducted simultaneously by farmers as subak members based on the climate information provided by government. It is needed to make a digitalized map for the forest area which is being a water catchment area as a source of water for subak. Besides, government should provide periodical information about the water balance and the plan of water allocation for irrigation and non-irrigation and improve the environmental upstream area. Besides, it must be also provided digitalized information about the climate forecast, water availability along the river and each weir/dam. Keywords: Subak, climate change, irrigation, digitalized map, and ritual activities